The national day or the republic day of Turkey is one of the public holidays during which the Turks celebrate the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923. The national day is annually observed on 29th October with a duration of 35 hours. This event is very important in the Turkish history hence all the commemoration occurs. It is celebrated in the form of traditional parades with flags and musical bands, cultural programmes, events at schools and various performances. On 29th October 1923, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk declared Turkey as a Republic state. After this declaration, the official name of Turkey was introduced as “Turkiye Cumhuriyeti” which means “The Republic of Turkey. After that elections took place in the Grand National Assembly where Ataturk was elected as the first ever president of the Republic of Turkey.
The national anthem of Turkey is known as ”Istikal Marsi”. It was made official on 12th March 1921. It was written by Mehmet Akif Ersoy in 1921. The music was composed by Osman Zeki Ungor in 1930 and again renewed by Edgar Manas in 1932. It was written as a musical saga to motivate the troops fighting in Turkish war of independence. But later, it became the great and aspiring anthem for the Republic of Turkey. To choose a national anthem, the Grand national Assembly of Turkey held a competition where 724 poems were submitted but the poem written by Mehmet Akif Ersoy was chosen. There are ten total verses of Ersoy’s poem, but the first two are only sung as the national anthem.
Turkey National Anthem Audio And Download Link
Turkey National Anthem Video And Download Link
The flag of the Republic of Turkey consists of two colors-red and white. The flag is completely red with a white colored star and crescent featured slightly left to the center. Often, the flag is called “al bayrak”. It is also mentioned in the national anthem where it is referred as “al sancak” which means the red banner. The design of the current flag is derived from the late Ottoman flag which was introduced in 1844. This flag became the standard in 1936 when the Turkish flag law was passed. Legend says that the moon and star symbolize the dream seen by the founder of Ottoman empire-Osman. He saw the moon arising from the chest of his lover’s father and when full, it entered his own. Then a tree sprang out from his body which covered the whole world with its beautiful green branches. Under that tree, Osman saw the world in front of him which was surmounted by the crescent.
The republic of Turkey has officially no national emblem. The star and crescent design from the national flag of Turkey are used instead. They can be seen printed on Turkish passports, Turkish identity cards, in the escutcheon and variant used by ministry of foreign affairs including the embassies and consulates. It can also be seen in the Grand national Assembly seal in parliaments and on the uniforms of Turkish national sports teams and athletes as badges and in many government institutes. The presidential seal of Turkey consists of a large sixteen-pointed star in the center. The central star is surrounded by sixteen five-pointed stars which symbolizes the sixteen Great Turkic Empires.
Capital of Nation
Ankara is the capital of Turkey which is the second largest city after Istanbul located in central Anatolia. Ankara is an administrative city. It is an important cultural, industrial and commercial place in the nation. The area of Ankara is 2516 km² with a population of 5.445 million. In history it was known as Ancyra and Angora. The Grand National Assembly of Turkey was established in this city on 23rd April 1920. It was significant because it became the headquarters for Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and during the Turkish war of independence, Ankara became headquarters for the Turkish National Movement as well. Ankara became the capital of Turkey on 29th October 1923 after the Ottoman empire was fallen. Before the fall, Istanbul was the capital.
The national currency of Turkey is the Turkish lira which is further subdivided into 100 Kurus. The symbol of Turkish lira is TL and the its code is TRY according to the international standard. This currency is used by both Turkey and the Northern Cyprus. The banknotes are ₺20, ₺5, ₺100, ₺50, ₺10, ₺200 and the coins are 5kr, ₺1, 25kr, 50kr, 10kr respectively. The lira originates from the unit of weight-libra in ancient Rome which referred to the silver Troy pound. Before the Turkish lira, Ottoman lira and kurus were in use. At the end of 1927, the use of Ottoman lira was annihilated. Now the face of Ataturk is imprinted on the Turkish lira banknotes indicating his importance in the nation of Turkey. The old Turkish lira was replaced by the new(yeni) Turkish lira in late December 2003, when the Grand national Assembly passed a law which allowed the removal of six zeroes from the old currency and introducing the new lira in 2005.
The national dress of Turkey is “dimije” or the “Turkish salvar” which is a baggy trouser gathered tightly at the ankle varying in volume. Jubba is also worn by some men which is a loose coat, over the salvar. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk changed the dress code in his reforms in the 1920’s but the traditional salvar is still worn at different areas in Turkey by both men and women. Head pieces are also worn with the traditional clothes making the Turkish attire completely unique. Women prefer wearing embroidered clothes with bright colors like red whereas men prefer dull colors with simple jubbas. The shoes are also embroidered usually made of leather.
The national colors of Turkey are red and white adopted from the colors of the national flag. Red and white are the primary colors while the secondary color is turquoise which is used in sports and other fields. The national colors of any country are usually the ones present in its national flag so naturally for Turkey, the colors are red and white. National colors act as a national symbol so they hold a certain significance in the representation of a nation. National colors are a de facto meaning that they do not exist according to law, but according to their popular use in different media, flags and sports.
The national poet of Turkey is Mehmet Akif Ersoy who was the writer of the national anthem. He was also an academic and a politician. He was born during the Ottoman empire in 20 December 1873 and died in 27 December 1936. A national poet holds a significant place in a country’s culture as he represents the identity, principles and beliefs of a country. He is considered a cultural hero. That is why a university in Burdur is named after Mehmet Akif Ersoy and his portrait was depicted on the 100 lira banknotes from 1983 to 1989. Mehmet Akif Ersoy was an extreme patriot during the collapse of the Ottoman empire. He made many contributions to the struggle for the declaration of the Turkish Republic. He delivered speeches at many mosques in Anatoli that were extremely inspirational.
Turkish Airlines is the national airline of Turkey. All of its planes carry the flag and it is the largest carrier in the world according to the number of passenger destinations. This airline flies to 122 countries which is more than any airline in the world. The Turkish airline headquarters are located in Istanbul in the Istanbul Ataturk Airport. The airline is also a member of the star alliance network. Turkish Airlines was established on 20th May 1933. The aircrafts providing services are 209 in number. Turkish Airlines won the Skytrax awards for Europe’s Best Airline and the Southern Europe’s Best Airline award. For three consecutive years in 2011, 2012 and 2013, it was the World’s Best Premium Economy Class Airline Seat. For another three years-2014, 2015,2016, Turkish airlines retained its status as Europe’s Best Airline. At the Air Transport News Awards Ceremony, Turkish Airlines was selected as the Airline of the Year by Air Transport News in 2013.
Turkey does not have just one specific national museum. It is full of glorious museums and architectural buildings. After the proclamation of the Republic, Turkish museums were developed at a very fast pace. It was mainly due to the emphasis Atatürk had put onto the research and exhibition of artifacts of Anatolia. When the proclamation of Turkey took place, the “Asar-ı Atika Müzesi” was the only İstanbul Archaeology Museum. The Istanbul Military Museum located in the St. Irene Church, the Islamic Museum located in the Suleymaniye Complex in Istanbul and the other small museums of the Ottoman Empire were present in a few large cities of Anatolia. With further development of Turkey, the country gained fame for its beautiful museums. In 2018 alone, 6 million tourists visited the museums of Turkey.
Milli kutuphane is the National Library of Turkey which is located in the Cankaya region of Ankara. On 15th April 1946, the foundation of this library took place. Milli kutuphane has one of the diverse and the richest collections than any other library in Turkey. The collection of the national library exceeds to 3,089,517 items which are divided into further categories: 1,314,683 books, 56,550 books in the old orthography, 1,475,129 Periodicals, 215,677 Non-textual Materials and 27,478 Manuscripts. The library occupies 39000 square meters of space. It is a remarkable library which enjoys being the member of the Conference of European National Librarians (CENL).
The Ataturk Olympic stadium is the national sports stadium located in Istanbul, Turkey. It has a capacity of seating 76,092 people making it the largest stadium in the whole country. It is the home stadium of many teams like Turkey national football team and İstanbul Basaksehir. The stadium is named after Mustafa Kemal Ataturk who is the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. Its construction started in the year 1999 and was completed in the year 2002. It cost about US $140 million for the construction of Ataturk Olympics stadium. it was granted the title “5-star sports complex” by the UEFA in 2004 which enabled the stadium to hold the UEFA finale events. The stadium contains 134 entrances and 148 exit gates. Two annex fields are connected with an underground tunnel directly to the Olympic Stadium. The stadium has a technical infrastructure which provides the audience with maximum visibility from the strands. The sound and speaker system efficiently produce uniform sound to cover the whole stadium.
The traditional Turkish national sport is oil wrestling or grease wrestling since the Ottoman times. The Kirkpinar oil wrestling tournament is held annually by Edirne since 1361. It is so called because the wrestlers douse their bodies in olive oil. The wrestlers are known as pehlivan (hero or champion), who wear a kisbet or kispet which is a type of hand-stitched leather trouser, traditionally made from the hide of water buffalo. Recently it has been made of calf skin. The pehlivan’s aim is to control his opponent by the move called paca kazik which involves putting his arm through the latter’s kisbet to win the game. Oil wrestling festivals also take place in foreign areas like northern Greece in Eastern Macedonia. Recently, this style of wrestling has become popular in other countries like Netherlands and Japan.
The national river of Turkey is Tigris. Tigris is 1,900 km long, out of which 523 km is present in Turkey. It rises from the mountains located near the Elazig province which after joining with the Euphrates at Shatt al-Arab, continues to empty into the Persian Gulf in Basra. The Tigris is the east side of the two great rivers that are Mesopotamia and Euphrates. The river Tigris flows from south of the mountains of southeastern Turkey. It then moves through Iraq and finally empties into the Persian Gulf. Tigris has been an important transport route for a long time in a large desert country. Shallow-draft vessels can go to Baghdad and rafts are needed for transportation to Mosul. In Persian, another name used for the Tigris used was Arvand Rud which literally means swift river.
The national mountain range of Turkey are the Kackar Mountains or simply Kaçkars. They were formerly known as the Lazistan Mountains. Kackar mountains are a mountain range that rise above the Black Sea coast in the east side of Turkey. The highest peak known as Kacker Dagi has the height of 3,937 meters (12,917 ft). The highest part of the Pontic Mountains are the mountain plateaus at about 3,000 m (9,800 ft) in height. The Kackars are glaciated mountains meaning that they are covered in glaciers with steep rocky peaks and numerous mountain lakes. This area was declared a national park of Turkey in 1944. Tourism activities in the park include camping, hiking, mountaineering and heliskiing. On the south and eastern region, the Kaçkar Mountains are bordered by the Çoruh river valley. On the northern region these mountains are covered by the Black Sea coast.
Just like the national museums of Turkey, there is not one specific national park of Turkey as it is full of beautiful parks. One of the five protected areas in the country are National parks Approximately, 1% of Turkey’s total area is occupied by national parks. Some of the national parks includes: Yozgat Pine Grove National Park, Karatepe-Aslantaş National Park, Spil Mount National Park, Mount Gulluk-Termessos National Park, Beydaglari Coastal National Park,Mount Ilgaz National Park, Commander-in-Chief National Historic Park, Ancient Goreme National Park, Mount Nemrut National Park, Lake Beysehir National Park, Saklikent National Park and many more.
The national zoo of turkey is the Ankara zoo. This zoo was founded in 1933. It houses some big cats, a variety of birds, monkeys, apes, snakes, an aquarium and it also breeds and sells Angora cats. It is usually known as the Ataurk Forest Farm and Zoo because it was founded by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk in 1925 as a private farm. It is a large farming area which also houses a zoo. Both the farm and the zoo are under the administration of the Ministry of Agriculture and Village Affairs. Other famous zoos include: Soğanlı Zoo located in Bursa, Darica Zoo located in Istanbul, Natural Life Park of Sasali located in İzmir, Gaziantep Zoo located in Gaziantep, Polonezkoy Animal Park located in Şile.
12 million hectares of forests in Turkey are high forests 50% of the forested lands. The remaining 10 million hectares of land are degraded forests. High coppice forests are very scarce in Turkey. Turkey has 21.7 million hectares forest area according to national data derived from the renewed forest management plans. Total growing stock is 1494 million per hectare. Turkish forests also have a great diversity of flora including various medicinal, aromatic, industrial and ornamental plants. In some areas. Turkish forests still include some nearly extinct species of plants. Turkey does not have a specific national forest.
Turkey Oak is the national tree of Turkey. It is also known as Austrian oak. Its scientific name is Quercus cerris. It is large and grows 25-40 m tall. Its trunk can grow with a diameter of 2 m. the bark is furrowed and dark grey in color. The bark fissures on mature trees are streaked orange at the base of the trunk. The leaves are glossy and the flowers are catkins that pollinate by wind. The fruit is in the form of a large acorn. It is mostly present in Europe and is a fast growing tree. The gall wasps present on the tree provide as food for birds.
Tulip is the national flower of Turkey. It is derived from the Turkish word tulbend or turban, due to the resemblance of its flower to that of a turban. It is present in a huge variety of colors such as yellow, white, pink, red, purple, black, orange, multi colors. Tulips are also called as the king of bulbs. Tulips hold a lot of importance in the lifestyle of Turks involving art, embroidery, handmade clothes, carpets, tiles having miniature designs of tulips. Turkey has almost all the species of wild flowers that the whole of Europe contains which counts up to be over 9000 species. Some rare flower species are also found in this nation. Some other famous flowers include Winter Aconite, Herbaceous Snowdrop, Lenten Rose, Wind Flower, Cyclamen Coum. All these trees
The official national animal of Turkey is the Gray Wolf. Its scientific name is Canis lupus. Grey wolves fit the Turks very well. They are heavy meat eaters like the first nomadic Turk tribes. They are weak in comparison to many other predators. However, they always hunt with a group with every group having an alpha male who is the leader. The idea fits Turkish people well. Turks also prefer to obey the strongest. Turkey’s National animal Gray wolf have an only one mate during their lifetime. They rarely build their own dens because they usually take over an abandoned one. They have a great sense of smell along with heightened vision. Turkish wolf is gray in color but they can also differ in color ranging from white to black. These wolves can also tolerate human proximity and are seen to enter villages and towns in search of food. The national animal of Turkey is just as unique and beautiful as the people of Turkey.
The national bird of Turkey is the Redwing. It is called so because of the presence of a red underwing. It is 20–24 cm long. The wingspan is of 33–34.5 cm and they weigh 50–75 g. The sexes are similar with no clear distinction. Both have plain brown backs and dark brown spots on the white underparts of their body. The most striking identification features are the red flanks, underwing, the creamy white stripe above the eye. Adults moult between the months June and September meaning that some redwing birds start to replace their flight feathers while still feeding the young. The male has a changing short song and the flight call sounds like a whistle. It is omnivorous so it eats a wide range of insects and earthworms throughout the year along with berries in autumn and winter.
Turkey does not have a specific national fruit as a wide range of fruits are available throughout the nation. But some fruits that are specific to Turkey are the apples from Amasya, the figs of Aydin specially the sari lop, the peaches of Bursa. The Turkish apples are famous for their taste. Turkey is one of the largest producers of apples which is more than 30,000 tons annually. The Turkish figs have a unique sweet flavor. They are chewy and resemble the taste of both apples and peaches. 60-70% of the dried figs traded in the world are from Turkey which makes it the largest supplier and producer of figs. Turkish peaches contain a delightful flavor with a very juicy texture. Hence, Turkey is a country full of many lovely things. Fruits are exported annually to the world by Turkey making the country earn millions. So with an economical point of view, the fruits of Turkey are valuable.
Most vegetable plants prefer moist and a mild climate. Turkey has much land suitable for cultivating vegetables so different parts of the country are involved I cultivation of different types of vegetables. In the western regions, green leafy vegetables have mostly been raised. Recently, irrigation and has opened up other areas for cultivation as well. Turkish cuisine uses a large amount of vegetables. The use of a wide variety of vegetables brings variety, flavor and more richness to Turkish cuisine. There is no specific national vegetable but some great vegetables grown in Turkey are: Cucumber, Arugula, Asparagus, Artichoke, Beets, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Celeriac, Chicory, Eggplant, Garlic And Knotweed.
The national cuisine of Turkey involves the heritage from the Ottoman empire. It is a fusion of many cuisines like Central Asian, Middle Eastern and Eastern European. The basic meat of Turkey is lamb and a variety of dishes are prepared with it. Sis kebab is a popular lamb dish and in many countries, it is known as Doner kebab. The Turks prefer a rich breakfast. They prefer their own Turkish cuisine even though a large variety of foreign food is easily accessible. In summers, they eat fried vegetables, koftas, menemen and cibir. They also eat summer helva. Frequently used ingredients are: beef, lamb, rice, fish, eggplants, onions garlic, lentils, zucchinis and tomatoes. Turkish cuisine is considered one of the most unique and delicious ones in the culinary world. Food is one of the most important parts of a culture and Turkish food is proof of Turkey’s great heritage.
The national sweet of Turkey is the world known Baklava. Gaziantep is famous for their baklava as they use dry fruit. Baklava is rich and sweet. It is made with pastry, filo dough filled with chopped nuts and doused in sweet syrup or honey. It is a very old desert which descended from the kitchens of the Ottoman empire. There are three proposals for roots of baklava: the Roman placenta cake from the Byzantine cuisine, the Central Asian Turkic tradition of layered breads, and the Persian lauzinaq. Baklava is a treat enjoyed by many countries. It is considered a special food even in the Turkish culture. It is prepared on days like Eid to celebrate and enjoy. Many countries have modified this desert and made their own twists but the original baklava is always considered from the Gaziantep province.
The national drink of Turkey is raki also known as Lion’s milk. It is made from distilled grapes an aniseed. Raki is drank on almost every happy occasion in Turkey to celebrate. It is often served with seafood. It is an alcoholic drink which is also used to make Rakomelo that is flavored with honey and cinnamon and is served usually in warm months. Raki originates from the Ottoman empire where it was forbidden due to Islamic laws. But in the Tanzimat period(1839-1876), its consumption increased in the Muslims. After the ottoman empire fell apart, factories were established that produced Raki. With the increased production of sugar beets, sugar beet alcohol was also introduced.
Turkey has a very interesting history so more reasons to have national holidays. Throughout the year many national holidays appear during which all the private and government institutes are closed. The following are the public national holidays of Turkey:
New Year’s Day on 1st January,
National Sovereignty and Children’s Day on 23rd April,
Labor and Solidarity Day on 1st May,
Commemoration of Ataturk, Youth and Sports Day on 19th May,
Democracy and National Unity Day on 15th July,
Victory Day on 30th August,
Republic Day Eve on 28th October,
Republic day on 29th October,
All these holidays are celebrated with joy and happiness every year. The celebrations are in the form of preparation of special food and drinks, decoration of the streets and homes, parades, wearing traditional clothing, different programmes held in respect to the special day.
The gross national income of Turkey is 2.225 trillion PPP dollars. The economy of Turkey is n emerging market as stated by the IMF. It is called as one of the newly industrialized countries. Turkey nominal GDP is the 17th largest and its GDP by PPP is the 13th largest. Turkey is among the world’s leading producers of agricultural products, home appliances, textiles, consumer electronics, motor vehicles, transportation equipment and construction material. Since August 2018, Turkey has been facing a crisis involving currency and debt. The factors for such a disaster include: plunging in the value of lira, high levels of inflation, and rise in loan. But the livestock industry and the agricultural sector always improve and bring great results by stabilizing the economy.