22 November is the national day of Lebanon regarded as DAY OF INDEPENDENCE from French rule. After First World War League of Nations mandate ( 1923 – 1946 ) was forced over Syria and Lebanon. Many outside powers overruled Lebanon in different periods of pre –independence times. The latest track of struggle for independence goes back to the 16th century when fakur al din II ruled it. Many massacre of minorities have painted the history with red ink. This was a government under Ottoman Empire. But with the World War I the Ottoman Empire was disintegrated and they started to fear the Arab independence and from where Lebanese got a chance to start a struggle and arduous fight for their right of independence.
National anthem of Lebanese , whose lyrics is written by Rashid Nakhle and music is composed by Wadih Sabra in 1925 , whose most work was blend of western and eastern musical languages so national anthem also has same touch. It is influenced by Beirut’s exposure to western culture. On 1927 , 12th July this anthem was adopted as national. It was chosen from a world wide competition held for national anthem.
Lebanon National Anthem Video Download Link:
Lebanon National Anthem Audio Download Link:
Two horizontal red lines surrounding / bordering the central white stripe , bit wider than red ones. Over all their height ratio is written as 1 : 2 : 1. Central one is having more height. Regarded as Spanish fess which refers to central wider stripe in tricolor combination. The green cedar tree is drawn in central white stripe that touches both red stripes. The cedar tree has a symbolic meaning in flag. It is drawn after the Lebanon cedar tree (Cedrus libani). According to them the tree represents integrity , holiness and peace. From many biblical references where almost 70 times it is mentioned. It represents an emblem of long existence and service i.e. longevity. White color in flag like of snow refers to peace and purity.While the red stripes refer to the blood that is shed by people in the long historical struggle against the invaders who tried to overrule the country. So the stripes show their war against their redemption ,independence and freedom.
National emblem consist of a shield that is red colored with white sinister in its mid. In its center the cedar tree is present same as referring to country’s national flag. With a minor variation that the horizontal stripes of colors are transformed into a bend sinister. And the meanings of different colors of stripes and the cedar are same , which are represented by them in national flag.
CAPITAL OF NATION
Beirut is the capital of Lebanon. It is the largest city of country. According to last population census more than one million people live there. It is not only country’s largest city but also it is main seaport located at midpoint of Lebanon’s Mediterranean coast. It is also one of the oldest city of world , formed around five thousand years ago. It plays a major role in country’s economy as has most bans in its main district and is a seat of government. It was called BETA WORL CITY because of its efficiency in accountancy , law , banking and well established economy. It is a cosmopolitan as well as diverse religious city having majority of Muslim and Christian communities. Overall recognized religious groups in Beirut are 18.
Lebanese pound is national currency of Lebanon. Which is further divided into 100 piasters (or qirsh) but due to civil war the subdivisions were banned. Qirsh further has 4 divisions as qirshan, qirush , qirsha , qirshi .Lira is also used as currency. The coins and currency notes of Lebanon are Arabic and French bilingual. First bank notes were issued in 1925.Bank notes occur in form of 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 50,000, 100,000 pounds while only 250, 500 pounds coins are present.
The single culture of Lebanon is mixture of many civilizations. The culture an dpeople both emerged from various civilizations over thousands of years. Within country women wear many colorful skirts while men wear a traditional sherwal (baggy trousers). Historically this dress has origin from Ottoman Empire but today most Lebanese men and women prefer wearing modern clothes.
The national colors of Lebanon are white, red and green. These colors are originated from the flag of Lebanon and given status of national colors. These colors have symbolic meaning. Red refers to people of Lebanon , the people who shed their blood in way of independence , wars they fought for their right of freedom. White refers peace and purity . and green is for their holiness as it is derived from cedar tree which is most common in country and over seventy times mentioned in bible.
Khalil Gibran is consided as national poet of Lebanon. Commonly known as Khalil. Bron in January 6, 1883 and died at April 10, 1931. In English he used to sign as Gibran. He was not only a Lebanese poet but Lebanese – American poet , writer , visual artist , acknowledged over whole world. He was considered a philosopher too by he never considered himself a philosopher. He worte many books and the prophet was his bestselling book. Twenty Drawings , The Forerunner , The Wanderer and Lazarus and his Beloved are some of his other works.
Middle east airline ( Air Liban S.A.L. ) is national airline of Lebanon. It is flag carrier airline with its headquarter at Beirut. It operated its flights to Europe , Asia , Africa and middle east. It has an alliance with sky team. It has 33 destinations and fleet size is 18.
National museum of Beirut is a principal museum depicting Lebanon archelogy. Museum was officially opened in 1942 and the collection it contained was started after World War I. about 1300 artifacts are represented there each having its own historic significance. Total collections of museum is 100,000 objects.
Lebanese National library is located in capital city of country , Beirut. It was established almost ninety eight years again 1921 but soon it was closed for public owing to Lebanese civil war but later in 1999 it was restored and new planning begin in same year for new volumes. The mission was called as collective memory with goal that library should contain every single Lebanese writing about 2000 annually.
Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium (CCSC) is largest stadium of Lebanon and is located in capital city of Beirut with capacity of total 49,500 seats with 102 x 70 meters field size . its surface sis made up of grass and concrete. As football is national game of country so stadium is mostly used for football matches. It was made in 1957 by ministry of youth and fine arts. In opening game Lebanon won by 1- 0 goals.
Geographically Lebanon has summer and winter both seasons and many games are being played throughout country but Association football is national game of Lebanon. Lebanon has never made it to the FIFA World Cup so till now never won a trophy. Basically there are two top divisions of teams , Lebanese premier league and Lebanese second division. Overall 12 teams compete. These teams have many footballers and managers that have fame all over world. In 1933 national football team has been made.
There are many rivers found in lebanon but not a single one is given status of national. Nahr al-Kabir al-Janoubi , Astoun River , Nahr Ghadir , Arqa River , Nahr al-Bared , Zahrani River and Awali River are few rivers found in country.
Mount Lebanon is mountain range averages above 2,500 m (8,200 ft.) in height is present in Lebanon. Geographical view shows that it extends parallel to Mediterranean coast , range passes through whole country almost 170 km in length. Its highest peak is almost about 3,088 m high known as Qurnat as Sawdā . Lebanon was historically well known for his mountains that provide a protection to its people. There are many oak and pine forests found in these mountains.
Park Joseph Tohme Skaff is national park of Lebanon located in Zahlé. This park depicts fresh greenery and is a home to many animals that are a piece of amusement for public.
Animal city zoo is referred and first and only one , fast growing zoo in Lebanon. It is largest zoo and has 200 different species of animals of which 50 species of wild and domesticated animals. That are sheltered , cared and fed. It is a place for entertainment of children. The aim of zoo includes making people aware of needs of animals and perusing them to take care.
Cedars of god is national forest of Lebanon Located at bisshri. It forms last vestiges of the extensive forests of Lebanese. It flourished across Mount Lebanon in old times. A lot of timber is produced by this forest used by its people.
Cedar is national tree of Lebanon. It is also present in the national flag and emblem of Lebanon where it symbolizes longevity. It is commonly called as Lebanon cedar. It is a conifer tree that remains evergreen and is about 40 m high.
No flower has been chosen as national flower but Persian Cyclamen scientifically called as Cyclamen presicum is considered as official Lebanese flower.
Striped hyena is considered as national animal of Lebanon. Basically hyenas are not associated to mountains of Lebanon but stripped hyenas are native to Lebanon. But in 2008 they are declared as threatened species.
Phoenix is national bird of Lebanon. In myths of Lebanon it is considered that this bird arises from ashes and fire. In old times , it was regarded as legendary bird. It is also mentioned in many ancient Greek mythology and literature.
Variety of fruits are being produced in country because it has both summer and winter seasons but no single fruit is regarded as its national fruit. Yet it has other long list of fruits which it produces annually that include Akidineh (Loquats), Jenerick (Green Sour Plum), Plums, Watermelon, Shimmam (Cantaloupe), Honey Dew, Cherries, Bananas.
Lebanon produces many crops but it has no national vegetable yet. The main crops include citrus fruits, vegetables, olives, tobacco, and grapes.
Kibbeh is national dish of Lebanon. It is a Levantine dish. Its ingredients include bulgur, onions, and grounded beef, lamb, goat, or camel meat with many spices (cinnamon, nutmeg, clove, allspice). Before baking they are given different shapes like balls , patties, or might be cooked in broth and served raw. It is served at hot temperature.
Many other countries too regard this dish as their national dish.
Lebanon is rich in culture and various sweet dishes are made here but no single one is regarded as national sweet. But pastries are majorly enjoyed sweet dish that comes in variety of forms as Aish as-Saraya, Qatayef, Basbousa, Harees, Kanafeh, baklava, Ka’ak, Sfouf and Maamoul.
Arak is national dish of Lebanon. It is an alcoholic drink. It is formed by distillation of grapes to form alcohol and aniseed. The raw alcohol is called spirto in which water is added to reduce alcohol level because this should be made clear that in arak alcohol level should not rise which is a taste factor of arak. Then second distillation is done using aniseed and distilled third time. Then it is drank.
Lebanese people enjoy a list of holidays as national holidays. Which include new year’s day, feast of annunciation , labor day , national holiday , eid ul fitr , eid ul adha , assumption day and hijri new year day.
Lebanese economy is self-oriented and it is manly dependent over banking and tourism. The gross national income worth’s about 89.35 billion PPP dollars. Where gross domestic product worth about 51.84 billion USD and GNI per capita worth about 14,690 PPP dollars according to 2017 census.