Republic Day, also known as Festa Della Repubblica (Republic Day) is the national day of Italy, commemorated every year on 2nd June as the day of liberation from monarchs in 1946, and making Italy as a republic. It is celebrated countrywide as a national holiday. All of the government offices, post offices, banks, schools, and other educational instructions remain closed for the whole day. This day is celebrated with full zeal and zest both by the forces and civilians; by carrying out different parades and official ceremonies. These celebrations are not restricted only in Italy, but Italian embassies celebrate this day around the globe.
“Il Canto Degli Italiani” is the national anthem of Italy. Italians also call this as “Inno di Mameli” named after its lyricist “Fratelli d’Italia” (Brothers of Italy), stated in the first line of the anthem. The stanzas were written in 1847 in Genoa, by Goffredo Mameli, a teenage patriotic student. Two months later, these stanzas were given music in Turin, by Michele Novaro, another Genoese. This national anthem has got much fame not only in the era of Risorgimento but also in the subsequent decades.
However, the “Marcia Reale” (Royal March), has also got popularity as an official anthem of House of Savoy after Italian Unification in 1861. Soon Italy got liberated, after the Second World War, in 1946 “Il Canto Degli Italiani” was temporarily declared as the national anthem of the country. It was made official in law on 23 November 2012. To make Canto Degli Italiani as the national song of Italy, a bill was submitted to the Constitutional Affairs Committee in August 2016, which got approved in July 2017. Nevertheless, not later than 4 December 2017 Canto Degli Italiani” was declared legally as the national anthem of sate by the law no 181.
Italy National Anthem Audio And Download Link:
Italy National Anthem Audio And Download Link:
The Italian flag known as il Tricolore is a tricolor comprising of three equal-sized vertical stripes of green, white and red color where green color serves as the hoist side. It was adopted on 1 January 1948, but its recent form has been in use since 1946. Earlier, in 1979, this tricolor was adopted by the Cispadane Republic, after defeating Milan and soon after Napolean’s crossed Italy as a conqueror. The red and white color chosen by the Cispadian Republic were the colors of Milan flag, while the green color was the color of the uniform of Milanese civic guards.
Many different kinds of values are being associated with the colors of the Italian flag. However, commonly the green color of the flag shows an association with the country’s plains and the cliffs; white color represents the snow-covered peaks, and red is associated with the bloodshed occurred during the war of independence. However, religious interpretations also exist. One of these interpretations is that the green color indicates hope, the white symbolizes faith, and the red shows charity.
The national emblem Italian republic also called coat of arms (or stemma in Italian, but technically it is considered as an emblem as it was not designed only to obey the old rules of Heraldic era. It was formally adopted on May 5th, 1948. The emblem consists of a white five-edged star, superimposed on five branched gear, surrounded by an olive branch by the left and an oak branch by right side; the branches in the bottom wrapped around each other and tied over by the red ribbon inscribed as “REPVBBLICA ITALIANA” (Italian Republic). The inscription is written in Italian, but the alphabets are Roman styled. This emblem is in wide use by the Italian government.
The oak and olive branches in the emblem are associated with a specific meaning. The oak branch is the symbol of the valor and respect of the Italian people, while the olive branch shows the nation’s longing for tranquility, both accord at the national level and fraternity on an international level.
Capital of Nation
Rome is the capital city of Italy. It is also considered as the capital of the Lazio region. It is the most populated city of Italy housing 2,872,800 residents and having an area of 1,285 km2. Based on its population, it is also ranked as the fourth most colonized city of the European Union. Rome is situated to the central west part of Italian Peninsula, including Lazio, along the shoreline of the Tiber. Another beauty of Rome is that it holds a completely independent country, the Vatican City, inside it. It is the only example of a country residing solely inside a city. This is the reason Rome has been declared as the capital of two independent states.
Rome is regarded as a global city. It also has tourists’ attraction and has been ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world in 2016; while third most visited city of the European Union. It s asset is listed as a World Heritage Site in the list of UNESCO.
The lira has served as the currency of Italy from 1861 to 2002. It was declared officially as the national subunit of the euro between 1999 and 2002. All types of cash payments were made in lira form only, as there were euro coins or notes available in that period.
The term lira has got its name from the value of a pound, made of high-quality silver. This keeps a direct relationship with the British pound sterling from the Germanic silabar. In countries including Cyprus and Malta, the words pound and lira were regarded and used as equivalents, hence “L,” with the double-crossed script (“₤”), was the symbol most often used for Lira. Afterward, on January 1st, 1999, the lira was replaced with euro (euro coins and notes were not introduced until 2002). Traditional lira was ceased legally on 28 February 2002. One euro is equal to 1936.27 lire).
The Italian women wear skirts of different colors with light or heavy embroidery over them. As undergarments, light-weight chemises or blouses are used. Additionally, they also wear elaborated hats ornamented with flowers or fruit. Men wear simple dresses having embroidery and metal buttons on them. The origin of these dresses is the farmer’s dress in the Dark Ages.
Italian peasants dressed according to their work. They were used to wear simple pants and shirts for the men, while blouses and skirts were common for the women. These dresses were prepared using simple fabric, wool being common. Colors of fabric included low-cost gray and black. A waterproof type of wool called orbace was a common fabric used in woven clothes. The Mussolini’s well-known Black uniform Shirts were made from orbace.
The national colors of Italy include green, white, and red color, together known in Italian as il Tricolore. The national colors are selected in the constitution to be displayed on the Flag of Italy, thus making it a vertical tricolor flag exhibiting green, white, and red. However, before being selected as colors of the flag, these colors were also used (and still in use) on another national symbol of Italy known as a cockade. The Frecce Tricolori, the aerobatics demonstration team of the Italian Aeronautica Militare, is named so for emitting the green, white, and red smoke trails during performances, decorating the skies with national colors.
The peak of Elk Mountains of Colorado in the United States, known as Italia Peak, is named so based on the display on one of its fronts, viewed from a distance, of “bright red, white and green colors.”
Giosuè Carducci is regarded as the national poet of contemporary Italy. However, no single poet has got immense significance; rather, several poets are regarded as equal significance based on their literary contributions to Italy. These include Dante Alighieri, Giosuè Carducci, Giacomo Leopardi, Ugo Foscolo, and Gabriele D’Annunzio. Giosuè Carducci is considered as the pioneer poet of Italy to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1906. Afterward, in 1975, Eugenio Montale (1896 – 1981) was also awarded the Nobel Prize in literature.
Carducci’s piece of writings has earned much fame in Italy. His books Rime Nuove (1887; The New Lyrics) and Odi Barbare (1877; The Barbarian Odes) contain: the evocations of the Maremma countryside and the recollections of early days; the grieve of losing his only son; the illustration of vast historical events; and the determined efforts to evoke the magnificence of Roman history and the pagan happiness of old cultures.
Alitalia – Società Aerea Italiana (Italian Air Company) is considered as the national airline of Italy. Its head office is located in Fiumicino, Rome, Italy. Its main center is Leonardo da Vinci-Fiumicino Airport, Rome, and Linate Airport, Milan is considered as a secondary hub. Its other airports include Catania-Fontanarossa Airport, Milan-Malpensa Airport, Palermo Airport, and Naples Airport. In 2018, it was ranked as the twelfth-largest airline in Europe. The name “Alitalia” can be broken down as Ali (wings), and Italia (Italy).
Alitalia’s shareholders include CAI (Compagnia Aerea Italiana), which is an Italian airline holding company and its main shareholders were: Intesa Sanpaolo sharing 20.59%, Poste Italiane sharing 19.48% and UniCredit sharing 12.99%. Alitalia has 97 destinations worldwide (as per record of April 2016). Alitalia has four classes of service, including economy, premium economy, business class medium-haul, and Magnifica.
TheRoman National Museum is an archaeological museum in Rome. It was recognized in 1889 where different archaeological compilations and the plentiful material, found during the urban revolution because of the novel position as the capital of the Kingdom of Italy taken by the city in 1871. Primarily, this museum was situated in the area of the convent built in the Baths of Diocletian, after which only a far-reaching revolution in 1990 divided the works in the modern four locations including Baths of Diocletian, Palazzo Massimo, Palazzo Attempts and Balbi Crypt.
The museum was inaugurated in 2001 and included the “Archaeology and History of an urban landscape” and the” The city of Rome from ancient times to the Middle Ages – Archaeology and History” section, which describes the life and change in the city between the 5th and 10th centuries. The Balbi Crypt indicates the growth of Roman society and the urban land from old times to current times.
The Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma (Rome National Central Library) in Rome and Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze in Florence are two national libraries of Italy. The library functions to collect and safeguard all the published work not only in Italy but also the foreign material that in one way or the other is related to Italy. The library makes sure that the collected publications are available to anyone for reading. The library currently houses more than 7,000,000 printed piece of writings, 2,000 incunabula, 25,000 16th century books, 8,000 manuscripts, 10,000 drawings, 20,000 maps, and 1,342,154 brochures.
The Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma was inaugurated on March 1876 inside the Collegio Romano, which is the heart of the new library. One century later, the library’s location changed and moved to the current location. Its modern building was designed by architects Massimo Castellazzi, Tullio Dell’Anese, and Annibale Vitellozzi and started on January 1975.
The Stadio Olimpico is the main and vast sports area of Rome. It is built inside the Foro Italico sports complex, in the north of Rome. The stadium is run by the Italian National Olympic Committee, and it is used mainly for a football association.
The Lazio and Roma find The Stadio Olimpico as their home stadium, where finals of Coppa Italia are also hosted. It was reconstructed for the 1990 FIFA World Cup, and it hosted the tournament final. This stadium has also hosted four European Cup finals, 2009 UEFA Champions League Final as the most recent one. It has ranked as category four stadium by UEFA.
Besides football, this stadium has been used extensively by the Italian national rugby union team and has also served as Italy’s national athletics stadium. Occasionally, it hosts concerts and events. The stadium has a current capacity of 72,698, people. Besides a large number of sports competitions, 91 concerts have also been arranged in this stadium since 1991.
Football (Italian: Calcio) is a national sport of Italy and currently the second most successful football team in World Cup history, first being Brazil. Other mostly played sports include basketball, volleyball, and cycling, which are the traditional games of Italy. Additionally, swimming, water polo, rugby union, tennis, athletics, fencing and Formula One are also considered as the oldest sports in Italy. Italy has the credit of having all-time great players in its football team.
Fabio Cannavaro, who played professional football from 1992 to 2011, is one of three players to have been named FIFA’s Player of the Year. Cannavaro was also the winner of 2006 award, and in the same year, he helped Italy reach the finals of the World Cup. Similarly, Dino Zoff and Giuseppe Meazza of Italy have also gained international fame in football by winning different international football matches. Italians also excel in Winter sports including cross-country skiing, luge and (slittino).
There is no specific national river of Italy. However, Italy has four largest rivers. The largest being the Po River. It stretches a total length of 405 miles. The river flows from West to East and flows in the northern parts of the country. On its way, it crosses major cities including Milan, Torino, Cremona, Piacenza, and Ferrara. The second-largest is the Adige River, which flows 255 miles. It originates from Alpine province near the Italian border with Austria and Switzerland, and while passing through a Lake Alpine, it falls into the Adriatic Sea. It generally flows from West to East. A wide variety of fish are found in this river, including the Marble trot.
The Tiber River, the third largest river of Italy, flows from Mount Fumaaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, covering a distance of 242 miles. It flows through Umbria and Lazio and serves as the prime source of water for Rome city. The Tanaro is one of the great tributaries of the Po River and covers a distance of 171 miles from the Ligurian Alps. The four basic tributaries feeding the river include the Stura di Demonte, Borgore, Bormida, and the Belbo. This river has faced 136 floods in the past 200 years.
There is no specific national mountain in Italy; rather, it has five large mountains. Among these Monte Bianco (meaning White Mountain) elevated to 4,808 meters is the highest mountain in Italy. This mountain is also known as Mont Blanc and is popular for snowboarding, mountaineering, hiking, and skiing. At present, the mountain is climbed by over 20,000 mountaineers. The second-largest mountain being the Lyskamm- Lyskamm Mountain (Silver Blast) which extends 4,527 meters above the sea level. The mountain is divided into Western Lyskamm and Eastern Lyskamm alienated by 1km long ridge only. The mountain is well known for mountaineering and hiking.
Monte Cervino (summit of Monte Cervino Mountain) has an altitude of 4,478m. it is the pyramidal shape and has four faces facing the four compass directions
The fourth mountain is Grandes Jorasses extending to 4,208 meters. This mountain is located in Mont Blanc massif, surrounded by Haute-Savoie in France and Aosta Valley in Italy. Dent d’Herens extending to a distance of 4,174 meters is the fifth largest mountain in the Pennine Alps, lying on the border between Italy and Switzerland.
No specific national park has been recognized for Italy. However, the Italian government has created 24 national parks in the whole country. One of these parks is established on the island of Sicily, and three are situated on the island of Sardinia. Overall, these parks cover an area of 5,843 square miles, representing approximately 5% of the land of Italy.
The Gran Paradiso National Park recognized as the nation’s first national park in 1922, to protect the natural habitats for conservation of species. This park is located in the region of Piedmont and Aosta Valley and shares a border with the Vanoise National Park in France.
There is no one national zoo of Italy, but there are found a great number of zoological gardens are of quite an interest to their general population. These include Rome Biopark is a 17-hectare large public zoo in Rome. It feels more like a safari, as there are no fences in many parts of this Zoo. Zoo di Pistoia is another zoo and amusement park in Pistoia, Tuscany, Italy, established in 1970 covering an area of 75,000 square meters.
Museum of Zoology holds special fauna including their evolution throughout history. Another largest zoo is Faunistic Park Le Cornelle which also serves as an amusement park in Valbrembo, in northern Italy, established by Angelo Benedetti in 1981. It covers an area of 100,000 square meters.
Parco Natura Viva, in Bussolengo, Italy is a special zoo constructed to protect the endangered species, mostly from Africa. This has been an entertaining and educative zoo for all ages.
Casentino valley is located amidst of Romagna and Tuscany, the point from where the river Arno starts its flow to the Tirrenian Sea. This is rich in flora and fauna and stunning nature. Though this was a forest, it has now changed into a National Park in 1993 depending on its huge variety of nature, its past (that dates to the Etruscans), and its biodiversity.
The park is spread to an area of 30,000 hectares, 18,000 of which is located in the Romagna region, most of which is covered by best-preserved woods forest in Italy, Foreste Casentinesi. The richness in wood has always been a peculiarity of this area, and of course, it influenced the historical events that had happened here. The Medici family was using these trees to build its villas, the cities of Pisa and Livorno used these woods to construct their weapon store and boats, and even to build the marvelous Duomo of Florence labor used these woods as their raw material.
Olive Tree and Oak Tree is the national tree of Italy. The olive tree is used for several center-left political and electoral purposes. Quercus frainetto, the Hungarian oak or Italian oak, is a species of oak, found in the southeastern part of Europe (parts of Italy, the Balkans, parts of Hungary, Romania) and Turkey.
The Oaktree gains love across the world because of a good reason as it is a symbol of power, self-esteem, struggle, and knowledge. Throughout history, the Oak has been interpreted in different meanings and sometimes associate with powerful gods.
Recently the olive trees have begun to fall ill due to a fungus named as Xylella. The identification of the Xylella in Italy has posed a great risk to the scientific and political communities of the European Union. Italian olive trees produce 15 percent of the world’s virgin olive oil, worth more than two billion dollars each year. Anything that harms the olive trees harms the economy of Italy.
The national flower of Italy is Lily, called Lilium (scientific name) Asiatic lily, Oriental lily, and stylized lily. It belongs to the Liliaceae family. Their bulbs planted and come into flower in spring, and can also be planted in fall then waited for spring to bloom in the coming year. They are also grown from seeds, scales, bulbils, and bulblets. A cool, spongy, and well-drained soil is vital for the optimal growth of lilies.
The flower emblems of the country have been classified into three categories. The traditional symbolic flower for Italy is Rose while, while White Poppy or White Lily is accepted as a symbolic religious flower and based on popularity violet is considered a flower emblem of the country.
There is a debate about the official national animal of Italy; however, the wolf is regarded as the unofficial symbol of the country by the most. The grey wolf also called the Apennine Wolf, occupies the Apennine Italian Mountains, Switzerland and some areas of France. In Italy, the wolf is considered as the dominant wild animal and also the only big predators.
According to few, the wolf is considered the symbol of Italy because the twin brothers who founded the city of Rome, Romulus, and Remus, were raised by a she-wolf who was caring and protective towards them and as she raised them as her children. The wolf belongs to a large family that also includes dog, dingoes, and jackals. The wolf is a regal animal that lives ina group form that is led by an old wolf. This animal has survival in a variety of habitats such as deserts, tundra, woods, and ice lands.
Italian sparrow is considered as the national bird of Italy. Its scientific name is passer italiae. Italian sparrow is commonly found in the bird in Italy. It exhibits characteristics to common sparrows and Spanish sparrows. Sparrow birds are found everywhere from northern Italy to the Swiss mountains and countrywide country. Italian sparrows are regarded as social birds; they mostly occupy near civilizations.
There is no specific national fruit of Italy. Every region has different fruits. Als, the choice of fruits depends on season. However, few of the fruits have gained wide popularity throughout the country, including Apples, Trentino Alto Adige, Grapes, and Berries. These fruits are originated in Italy.
There is no specific vegetable that can be called a national vegetable of Italy. However, Italy’s native Vegetables include olives, grapes, broccoli, wheat, parsnips, and carrots, and all of these have origins in Italy. This is one of the reasons food has been one of its main exports. Different types of lettuce grow well in Italy, and radicchio is native to this country.
Ragu Alla Bolognese, known simply as Bolognese, is known as the national dish of Italy. Not only Italians are fond of this dish, rather equally popular it is in other nearby countries. Its ingredients include meat (pork, beef, or veal), onions, carrots, pancetta, and butter. Its main ingredient is meat and is made through the sweating, sautéing, and braising of its ingredients.
The cuisine gets its name from its origin that is Bologna; hence, the dish is named Ragu Alla Bolognese. This dish is used with little variations in different corners of Italy. At some places, meat is replaced with lean veal. Other modern chefs use pork instead of lean veal. Further, milk and wine can also be used to give the cuisine additional flavor and beauty. Recently, tagliatelle has been replaced spaghetti by modern chefs in Italy, and the dish is altered form is named as spaghetti Bolognese.
Tiramisù has been regarded as the powerful drink of Italians. It is a layering of coffee-soaked savoiardi and a rich cream made with mascarpone cheese, eggs, and sugar, sometimes spiced up with a drop of liqueur. It is a soft and tasty dessert, sponge-like, to be eaten with a spoon, usually served in a glass or cup. Tiramisu has gained countrywide popularity, and it’s in the menu of many restaurants. Its origin is certainly from the north of Italy, but many other cities of Rome claim it to be their native dessert. According to a few, it was initially served in Treviso restaurant in 1971, even though the custom to serve it as a ‘tonic’ to the local customers would have gone back to the 1930s. Other than Tiramisù, several desserts have also been on the menu of local restaurants, and the local population is much fond of them. These include Cassata Siciliana, Panna Cotta, Babà and Tartufo di Pizzo.
There is no specific national drink of Italy. However, Italians’ most famous drink is Campari, which is bright red made of herbs. It has quinine bitterness to it. It is traditionally served with ice cubes and soda. Likewise, Limoncello has been classified as Italy’s second-most popular drink. It is a bright yellow drink made by mixing pure alcohol with lemon zest. Other widely used drinks in Italy include grappa, limoncello, amaretto, amaro, Fernet, Mirto, Alchermes, Aperol, Campari, Cynar, Frangelico, Maraschino, Rosolio, Sambuca, Strega.
There are twelve national holidays in Italy. January 1st is celebrated as new year’s day; 6th of January as Epiphany; a Sunday in spring as Easter; Monday after Easter as Easter Monday; 25th April as liberation day; May 1st as International worker’s day; 2nd June as Republic Day.
15th of August as Assumption day; 1st of November as All Saints Day; December 8th as Immaculate Conception, 25th December as Christmas day; and 26th December as Saint Stephen’s Day.
Italy is recorded to have the third-largest national economy in the eurozone, the 8th-largest by nominal GDP in the world, and the 12th-largest by GDP (PPP). Italy has a growing economy and is a founding member of the European Union, the Eurozone, the OECD, the G7, and the G20. Additionally, Italy is the eighth largest exporter in the world with $514 billion exported in 2016.
The economy of Italy is divided into three sectors, including primary, secondary, and tertiary sector. Among them, the primary sector is comprised of agricultural land where mainly grains, olive tree, vineyards, citrus orchards, sugar beets, and horticulture. The remainder is primarily dedicated to pastures and feed grains. The secondary sector of the economy includes small and medium-sized enterprises, most of which combine to form clusters and serve as the main support Italian industry. Likewise, the tertiary sector includes banking system of Italy. Italy has a total of ten types of banks currently working and seven insurance groups that are adding to the economy of the country.