Armenia is officially known as the Republic of Armenia. This country is located in the region of Eurasia in the South Caucasus on the Armenian Highlands. To the north and east, Armenia is surrounded by Georgia and Azerbaijan and the Republic of Artsakh. To the south Iran and exclave of Nakhchivan of Azerbaijan are located. To the west, it is surrounded by Turkey.
Armenia has a better plan than the other Soviet republics to provide human rights to its people. Armenia is ranking at 54th position in the report of human freedom index of 2017. Armenia ranks 29th in economic freedom and 76th in personal freedom according to the human freedom index of 2017.
Armenia has ten provinces. While the city of Yerevan has the importance of the capital of the country. Each of the ten provinces has marzept as chief administrative while the Capital city Yerevan has Mayor as the chief executive.
Armenia was declared as an independent state in 1918. But Armenia had to face several issues regarding its independence. Just after the two years, Armenia was conquered by the Red Soviet Army. After the passage of many troublesome years, Armenia again gained independence in 1991 on 21 September. Therefore, the national day of Armenia is 21 September which is celebrated by the demonstration of parade, concerts, and firecrackers. On the national day of Armenia, there is a special state holiday n Armenia.
“Mer hayrenik” is the national anthem of Armenia. It was ratified for the first time in 1918 as the national anthem of the temporarily existed Republic of Armenia. The founder of its lyrics was Mikayel Nalbandian while its music was composed by Barsegh Kanachyan. In 1991, the same song was chosen as the national anthem by Armenians with a slight changes in its lyrics. The current anthem is the modified version of a poem known as ” Song of an Italian Girl”. The poem consists of six stanzas. The word Hayrenik stands for “Our Fatherland”. The anthem includes the expression of the freedom and independence of the Armenians.
Armenia National Anthem Video And Download Link:
Armenia National Anthem Audio And Download Link:
The national flag of Armenia is made up of three colors that are in the form of horizontal stripes having a width of the same size. These three colors are red, blue and orange. The red-colored band is at the top and the red color indicates the freedom and struggle for survival. The blue band in the middle tells about Armenians will to live peacefully while the orange color at the bottom represents the courage of the nation, also about the creative and hardworking nature of the Armenians.
According to the law that was made in 2006, the Armenian flag should raise on all the governmental buildings along with most of the public structures.
To represent the values and pride of a nation, symbols play a very significant role. Armenia is one of the oldest nations, therefore, it also has its particular symbol that shows its dignity and values. A shield that is being held by an eagle and lion together is the Armenian national coat of arms. This shield is with emblems of great four Armenian royal dynasties. Five elements including a broken chain, a sword, feather, ears, wheat, and a ribbon are also the parts of national emblem. These all represent the Armenian talent, creativity and also their courage and bravery to get freedom. The other symbols of Armenia are eternity sign, forget me not, Mount Masis, and Cognac. The coat of arms is modified forms of the earlier republic of Armenia that was established in 1918.
The Eagle showed the symbol of the Artaxiad Dynasty and after that, it was utilized as the symbol for Arscaid Dynasty. Formerly, the lion was used as the symbol for the Bagratuni Dynasty but after that was used to symbolize the Rubenid Dynasty. Both eagle and lion are symbols for tolerance, nobility, wisdom, courage, and power.
The Shield also contains five elements
The sword is the sign of strength and power of the nation that is breaking the oppression chains.
The broken chain is the representation of the efforts made by Armenian to get freedom and independence.
Hard-working nature of Armenians is demonstrated by the use of wheat ears.
The feather is showing the cultural heritage of the inhabitants of Armenia.
The ribbon is representing the Armenian’s flag colors.
The national language of Armenia is Armenian while the other major languages of minorities that are spoken include Greek, Assyrian, Yazidi Kurdish, and Russian. Most of the population of Armenia speak Armenian. The official language of Armenia is Armenian. Armenian is also used as the instruction language in schools. Although 40% of people out of the total population are eligible to understand basic English. The other foreign languages spoken as second languages are French, German, Persian and also many others. Main foreign languages are English and Russian.
Capital of Nation
Yerevan is not only the biggest city of Armenia but also has the importance of being the capital city of Armenia. Yerevan is located along the Hrazdan River. Yerevan is also in the list of oldest inhabited cities of the world. This city is of great cultural, administrative, and cultural importance. Yerevan is considered the 13th capital in the history of Armenia because it had been the capital of the country since 1918.
Yerevan has traces of history in the eighth century. Yerevan had become the first capital city of Armenia as many survivors during the Ottoman empire of the Armenian Holocaust came to this area. Many changes were made after the rapid expanding of Yerevan. The city was then changed to the industrial, artistic and, cultural center of Armenia. 35 percent of the total population is living in Yerevan according to 2011 report.
The birthplace of Yerevan is Fortress of Erebuni and the Tsitsernakaberd is considered as the official memorial for the victims of Armenian Holocausts.
Yerevan Opera theater is the main spectacle hall of Yerevan. Another notable landmark of Yerevan is neoclassical Republic Square.
Armenian Dram is the national currency of Armenia. First time, it was issued in 1993. The name Dram is a Greek word which is translated as money in English. Armenian Drams has both the demonstration of coins and banknotes. Experts of England and Germany designed the new banknotes. The demonstration of coins are usually in the form of 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 drams. One dram is equal to 0.33 Pakistani Rupee. Silver coins called drams were issued in the period of 1199 to 1375.
On 27 March in 1991, Central Bank of Armenia was established that gave the right to issue the national currency.
The culture and tradition of a nation is demonstrated by its jewelry and outfits. The Armenian national outfit is really beautiful and interesting. The traditional out of Armenian male is consists of a shirt with wide trousers, a waistcoat used over the shirt, a typically designed sash, a headdress to cover head, and shoes too. In different regions of the country, the pattern of outer garment may change. Short outer waistcoats are preferred in some regions with fur trim. The trousers may also vary depending on their look. But regardless of the design of trousers, a long and wide sash is an essential part of the traditional dress.
While the traditional outfit of Armenian female is more complicated but admirably beautiful. The female costume consists of a long outfit, an apron, a belt or a sash, an outer outfit, a headdress along with jewelry, and shoes. The traditional female outfit is known as “Taraz”. This dress is adorned with a slit in the sides and the chest and it is a loose-fitting dress. The folk dress of Armenian women was the source to provide information about the owner’s social class, natural status, region of origin and even about the number of children.
There is a difference in the traditional dress of eastern and western Armenia. The dress of Eastern Armenian women consists of a long red shirt and red trousers, a velvet coat, and a silver belt besides headdress and shoes.
The headwear of Armenians is unique, bright and diverse. The handmade shoes of men and women both are of different designs.
The national colors of Armenian are red, blue and orange. The red color is a sign of their struggle for independence. Blue color shows their willingness towards peace. While orange color is for the demonstration of the nation’s bravery and courage.
The official interpretation of the colors is different. For example, red shows blood of 1.5 million Armenians that were killed during the Armenian Genocide, blue represents the pure sky of Armenia and orange represents the Armenian’s creative talent and their hard-working nature.
The national poet of Armenia is Hovhannes Tumanyan. He was a poet, translator, writer, public and literacy activist. He wrote many articles related to journalism, novels, ballads, and poems. From his work, many films and animated films have been adapted. His work was mostly based on the everyday life. He was born in Lori region in Dsegh, the historical village. He moved to Tifkis at a very young age during the 19th and early 20th century. Tiflis was under the Russian Empire and it was the center of culture of Armenia at that time. He was soon well known for his simple but impressive poetic work.
Many phrases and expressions of his work have become a part of everyday life of Armenians.
Armavia is considered as the national airline of Armenia. This airline was founded in 1996. This airline has worked from 1996 to 2013. It was the Armenian airline carrying Armenian flag. Its head office was near Yerevan in Zvartnots. Zvartnots international airport was its major base. It ceased all the operations on 01 April 2013. In the evening of 29 March 2013, all of its flights were canceled.
During its route from Yerevan to Sochi, Armenian flight 967 was crashed into the Black Sea. The fatal crash was a terrain accident that killed 105 passengers including 8 staff on board. By the impact with the water, the aircraft destroyed completely. The crash was the result of captan’s insufficient input control. Weather and poor visibility also participated in the flight’s crash.
The national museum of the Armenia state is the National Museum of Armenia.
On September 09 in 1919, The National Assembly of Armenia laid the foundation of History Museum. The museum was opened for visitors on August 20, 1920. Yervand Lalayan was its first director. It was known many other names in the past like Historical Museum and Cultural Historical Museum. After that, the final name chosen for it was National Museum of Armenia.
It has different departments including Numismatics, Ethnography, and Archaeology. It has a collection of about 400,000 national objects. A large collection of bronze items is also present. The national museum is in Yerevan and is situated in Republic square. Archaeology related items are making 35 percent of the total collection. 12 percent of collection is consists of documents and 45 percent is made up of Numismatics related items.
The state is the owner of both building and collection and also financially supporting the museum. Museum is also publishing works on Armenian archeology, history, ethnography, and architecture. The museum is also doing work for conservation and restoration. A series of reports have been published on archaeological excavations since its opening. Scientific and educational programs are also carried out on Armenian history by the museum.
The objects with articles present in National History Museum are pot with a lid, statuette of a wolf, and statuette of a Bird.
The national library of Armenia is the National Library of Armenia and is located in Yerevan. It was built in 1832. It is the cultural deposit of official importance for the whole state. Urbantagrik is the oldest printed book present in the library that was published in 1512. Azdarar is the oldest newspaper that is found in the library and it was published in 1794 in Madras.
The library has a collection of 7 million books. The largest repository of printed production of Armenia in the world is the National Library of Armenia. The library is equipped with newspapers, books, magazines, thesis, cards, music notes, calendars, postcards, video clips, and banknotes. The library was awarded with a medal named as” Friendship of people” was awarded at the 150th-anniversary ceremony of it. The library is situated in the 4th building of the main building designed by Al. Tamamyan. The reconstruction of the building took place during 2008-2011 and the government of the Republic of Armenia provided all the funds for its reconstruction. Many prominent Armenian writers which includes Derenik Demirchyan, Sergey Mergelyan, and famous scientists including Viktor Hambardzumyan, Eduard Jrbashyan, and many others were among the readers of the National Library of Armenia.
Vazgen Sargsyan Republican Stadium is considered as the national stadium. It is located in Yerevan, the capital city if the state. the stadium was founded from 1933 to 1935. Although its opening happened in 1935 but many new developments were made in 1953. This stadium is used for many purposes but this stadium has gained the importance of home ground for the national football team. It has the capacity of 14,403 seats.
The architect of the National stadium of Armenia is Koryun Hakobyan. During the Soviet days, the stadium was opened as Dinamo Stadium in 1935. The name was changed to Republic Stadium after making a major renovation in 1999. The name was changed from Republic stadium to Vazgen Sargsyan Republic Stadium by the end of 1999. The name was changed after the assassination of Vazgen Sargsyan, the former Armenian prime minister.
The major renovation that was started in 1995 had to delay due to the financial problems. In 1999, with the help of the UEFA Executive Committee, the delayed renovation process was continued. By renovation many changes we’re made including the development of the many more facilities, infrastructure, and seats by spending more than US$3 million.
Chess is the national game of Armenia. A wide range of games other than chess are also played that include volleyball, basketball, hockey, and football. The athletes are also sent to the Olympics in diving, gymnastics, wrestling, judo, weightlifting, boxing, track and field, and boxing.
Chess has special importance in Armenia therefore, it is known as the National game of Armenia. Chess has history back over a 1000 years in Armenia. It is considered that it was introduced by Arabs and they brought it from Indian.
First chess clubs were seen during the 1920s and 1930s and In Yerevan, many other places in Armenia first championship took place in the 1920s and 1930s Chess with the prominence of Tigran Petrosian, became very popular during the 1960s. Petrosian won four times Soviet Chess Championship and in 1963 gained the world title. He also won many victories as a USSR team’s part.
Garry Kasparov is another name which was internationally known during the time when the Cold War was about to end. After that, he played chess against a computer and today known as a public figure in Russia.
Chess is more interesting in Armenia than any other commercialized sports.
Arax is the largest river of Armenia. The river is located on a larger part of the Armenian border with Turkey and Iran too. Armenia is called Nairi due to its property of being the land of rivers and lakes. In the northwest part of Armenia the largest rivers are Aghstev and Debed, while on the other hand, the smaller ones are Pambak and Dzoraget. Lake Sevan is an Armenian large lake. The larget water body in the Caucasus and Armenian region is Lake Seven. It is one of the largest high altitude lakes of Eurasia.
Azat, Akhurian, kasagh, Arpa, Voghdji and Vorotan are the major tributes if Arax. Azat is a river that flows in the Kotayk Province of Armenia. Western slope of Geghama mountains is its slope. Akhurian is also known as Arpachy originates in Armenia. This river is in South Caucasus. Kasagh is a river which is flowing from north to south. It is in the west-central region of Armenia. Arpa is a river that has Vayots Dzor province as its originating point and it is considered as the left tributary of the Aras. Voghdji is a river that is flowing through the territory of Armenia and Azerbaijan. Vorotan originates in the northern part of Syunik province of Armenia.
Mount Aragats is also known as Gota Aragats mountain or Russian Gora Aragats. This mountain is located north to the Ararat Plain and northwest to Yerevan. Both tufas and lavas are composing this mountain. Mount Aragats play a significant role in the history of Armenia. Armenians consider Mount Aragats as a sacred mountain along with Ararat. Arafat’s has also the importance of first male name in regions encircling the mountain. The second-largest country of Armenia is Gyumri with which the mount Aragats is correlated. The Mountain Aragats has gained importance in Gyumri as it is depicted at the coat of arms of it. Many poets have written about Aragats.
Greater Ararat is the highest peak in Armenian plateau and Turkey. Mount Ararat is located to the extreme east side of Turkey is a dormant large volcano and covered with snow. The first record to reach at Ararat Mountain was made by Friedrich Parrot and four others in 1829.
In Christianity, the mountains of Ararat are accepted as the place of rest for the Ark of Noah.
Despite the small size of Armenia, there is a diversity of wildlife in it. To provide protection to the wide diversity of fauna and flora, the government of Armenia has established four National parks. These include Dilijan National Park, Lake Arpi National Park, Sevan National Park, and the Arevik National Park. Dilijan National Park was established in 2002 in Tavush province although it was as a state reserve in 1958. The Dilijan National Park is a house for 902 vascular plant species and has 40 rear flora species. The Dilijan National Park inhabits 150 birds variety, many reptiles species, 800 species of beetles, and many more.
The Lake Arpi National Park was built in 2009 in Shirak region. It consists of 250 Square kilometer area and it is elevated 2000 meters above the sea level. On the west and northwest side of the park, mountains are present.
Sevan National Park was founded in Gegharkunik in province in 1978. Arevik National Park established in 2009 in Syunik region. The aim of the Park was to protect Lake Sevan and the area surrounding it. The Sevan national park is the house for many mammals species containing hare, wolf, rodents, jackal, and marten. This park has more than 267 species of birds including 39 species marked in the Red Book of Armenia. The species that grow in this park include 307 of plant, 866 of perennial herbs, 28 of trees, and 42 of bushes.
Arevik National Park is set up in Syunik Province of Armenia. The Arevik National Park is the habitat of a great number of plant endangered species. Around 150 butterflies species including many threatened and rare species are found in the Arevik National Park. More than 180 species of birds are found in this park including many species that are present in the Armenian Red Book.
The national zoo of Armenia is Yerevan Zoo. It is also called as Zoological Garden of Yerevan. The zoo was established in Yerevan in 1940 and it has an area of 86 acre. It has more than 3000 animals. The number of species present in the zoo are 300. Species that represent Armenia and the South Caucasus are vipers, Bezoar goats, black vultures, Syrian brown bears, Armenian mouflon, and Red deer. The species from all around the world include Hippos, tigers, Leopards, Alpacas, African lions, Barbary sheep, Moon bears, and Grantik an Indian elephant.
Since Armenia is a land of great biodiversity, FPWC (Foundation for the preservation of Wildlife and Cultural Assets) has worked for Khosrov reserve which was at the risk of illegal logging, overgrazing, and poaching by taking control of management. The Yerevan Zoo is at the cooperation terms with FPWC for wildlife rehabilitation and protection of critically endangered species.
It was decided to open a zoo school by Yerevan Zoo by the cooperation of the Foundation of Wildlife and Cultural Assets (FPWC) in 2012. The main object to open the school is to teach schoolchildren about the importance of biodiversity in Armenia and all around the world. Yerevan Zoon will be used as an interactive classroom.
Khosrov Forest State Reserve is the national forest of Armenia. It is present in the Ararat province. It has a history of about 1700 years and is among the oldest and most protected areas of the world. King Khosrov Kotak laid its foundation in the 4th century and its name was settled at the king’s name. The climate of it is distinct due to altitudes which are above the sea level.
Duduk is one of the symbols of Armenia. The duduk is made up of the Apricot tree. This tree has unique properties.
The Abele, Silver leaf poplar, Silver poplar or White poplar is the official state tree of Armenia. Populus alba is commonly known as Abele, silver poplar, white poplar or silver leaf poplar. It mostly resembles the Aspens. It grows well in moist sides. It is grown in places with cold to mild winters and hot summers. It often grows along watersides.
Abele is a deciduous tree of medium size. It can grow to the height of 16-27 m with the diameter of the trunk up to 2 m. It has smooth greenish-white bark. White poplar is used to make yellow dye. It is also sometimes planted in parks. In northern Europe, the majority of white poplar are female trees. The wood of the tree is used to make cheap boxes.
Armenia has not any national flower. But the native flowers include Snowdrops, Forget-me-not, Lily of the valley, Lilium, and everlasting flowers. Armenia has the perfect conditions for the growth of Lilly of the valley.
Eagle is the national animal of the Armenian state. Due to its unique features to fly at high altitude, is no chance to mix the national animal of Armenia with other birds. The reason to choose the Eagle as the national animal exists in the form of courage, wisdom, power, nobility, and patience among the animal kingdom.
Eagle is omnivore. Its wingspan is 40-250cm. It weighs about 0.5-7kg. It has a life span of 15-30 years. It is seen in different colors that are brown, white, grey, black and yellow. The favorite food of eagle is fish.
The National Animal of Armenia is Carnivorous and its victims are birds, mammals, carrion and reptiles. It preys on open fields and meadows. Eagle lay eggs just once in a year ranging from 1-2 eggs per clutch. Eggs of Eagle are dull white having red-brown spots and of approximately 76mm.
Pomegranate is the national fruit of Armenia. Pomegranate is taken as the national fruit by Armenians due to its greater demonstrations in Armenian mythology, literature, art, movies, cuisine, and fashion. According to Mythology, the pomegranate is the symbol of happiness, marriage, abundance, and prosperity. it also symbolizes fertility.
Armenia has not any national vegetable. Although Armenians use vegetables such as pepper, tomato, and eggplant instead of using cabbage leaves.
Armenia is famous for its spicy and tasty dishes. The most appetizing and tasty dish of Armenia is national Cuisine. Armenians have got this tastiest dish from their forefathers. Cuisine reflects the history and the tradition of the old Armenians. The most important dish that has the importance of every table of Armenian is barbecue. It is prepared with beef, lamb, chicken or pork served with “Lavash”.
In Transcaucasia and Asia, the oldest one dish considered is Armenian cuisine. It’s quite stunning that 2500 years ago, Armenian knee how to make a barbecue by baking bread. More flavor is added to the Armenian cuisine with sweets. The other dishes of Armenia are Armenian Barbecue, Armenian dolma, Fish, hash, Harissa, and sweets.
” Gata” has great importance as it is a traditional dessert of Armenians. According to Armenians, it is a simple dish. It has the meaning of luck an success and every festive table is decorated with it. The Gata has also a special symbol. The Armenians that in ancient times their grandmothers made it with the help of fork with a cross. It has meaning that they get rid of evils. Sometimes, it also reflects the strength of a family.
The national sweet of Armenia is Sadjukh. It is made by the use of large walnuts, cloves sugar, cinnamon, and other spices.
The national drink of Armenia is Cognac which is made from special species of grapes that grow in Ararat Valley. The other traditional drinks are mulberry vodka and Armenian wine.
National holidays are New year’s day, Eastern Orthodox Christmas Eve, Eastern Orthodox Christmas, Army day, International women’s day, Easter Monday, Armenian genocide remembrance day, Labour day, Victory and peace day, Republic day, Constitution day, Vardavar, Elevation of the Holy Cross, Armenian independence day, New year’s Eve.
In 2018, the Armenians National Gross product reported was 12.595 USD. This record shows an increase from 11.991 USD for 2017. The economy of Armenia increased by 5.2% in 2018 and now showing a nominal GDP of $12.4 billion annually.